Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies <p><strong>Vidyottama Sanatana:</strong> International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies (pISSN: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2550-0643</a> and eISSN: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2550-0651</a>) publish by Universitas Hindu Negeri I Gusti Bagus Sugriwa Denpasar.</p> <p>Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies, particularly focuses on the Hindu Science and Religious Studies areas as follows: 1) Religious Education, 2) Religious Letters, 3) Theology, 4) Religious Philosophy, 5) Religious Cultural, and 6) Religion Science.</p> <p>Vidyottama Sanatana International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies is indexed by: DOAJ, Copernicus, Google Scholar, Moraref, Sinta, and accredited by The Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (KEMENRISTEKDIKTI) <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em><strong>No: </strong></em><strong><em>10/E/KPT/2019</em></strong></a></p> en-US (Dr. Drs. I Nyoman Ananda, M.Ag.) (Ari Kumara Dewi) Fri, 31 May 2024 15:29:53 +0200 OJS 60 THE EFFECT OF TRI HITA KARANA CULTURE ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN VILLAGE CREDIT INSTITUTIONS (LPD) IN BADUNG DISTRICT <p>In Bali, the Village Credit Institution (LPD) has emerged as a noteworthy microfinance institution, characterized by its unique ownership structure tied to traditional village institutions. This institution's legitimacy is anchored in Governor of Bali Decree Number 3 of 2017, bolstered by the implementing regulations outlined in Governor of Bali Regulation No. 44 of 2017. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the Tri Hita Karana culture on the financial performance of Village Credit Institutions (LPDs) in Badung Regency. The <em>Tri Hita Karana</em> culture is assessed using subvariables encompassing <em>Parahyangan, Pawongan</em>, and <em>Palemahan</em> elements. The financial performance of LPDs is gauged using the Return On Asset (ROA) ratio. Data collection was conducted through cross-sectional surveys employing a Likert scale, with the Village Credit Institutions (LPDs) in Badung Regency as the unit of analysis. The study involved 55 respondents, specifically the heads of LPDs, selected using Proportional Random Sampling. Path analysis was employed as the method for hypothesis testing. The findings of this research underscore the positive and statistically significant influence of the <em>Tri Hita Karana</em> culture, encompassing its subvariables of <em>Parahyangan, Pawongan</em>, and <em>Palemahan, </em>on the financial performance of Village Credit Institutions (LPDs) in Badung Regency. As a result, it is strongly recommended that LPD leadership actively promotes and integrates the <em>Tri Hita Karana</em> culture into their operations, serving as a guiding principle for LPD managers. This cultural emphasis is poised to enhance the overall financial performance of LPDs, thus fostering sustainable development and empowerment within the local community.</p> Ni Rai Artini Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FORMAL PASRAMAN CURRICULUM <p>Formal Pasraman is a form of Hindu Religious education, which consists of Primary Widya<br />Pasraman, Adi Widya Pasraman, Madyama Widya Pasraman, Main Widya Pasraman and Maha<br />Widya Pasraman. The Pasraman curriculum is regulated in articles 8 and 9, which state explicitly<br />that the curriculum consists of the Hindu religious curriculum and the general education<br />curriculum. The formal pasraman curriculum must be able to meet the competencies of 21st<br />century graduates. The relevance of the formal pasraman structure as well as the rationalization of<br />the curriculum structure that has been stipulated in PMA No. 10 of 2020 is very important to study.<br />For this reason, this research was conducted using a qualitative descriptive research method, in a<br />critical study with a literature study approach. The results of the research were found as follows; 1.<br />The relevance of the pasraman curriculum structure; analyzed from the nine national education<br />standards of education, taking into account aspects of flexibility, the basic logic of the curriculum,<br />dimensions and supporting aspects, it is concluded that the formal pasraman, especially in terms of<br />curriculum structure, is not yet relevant to the needs of the 21st century. others, as well as the<br />orientation of the analysis of the planning context, process and results of formal pasraman content,<br />to create Hindu-based superior quality schools. </p> Ni Wayan Sri Prabawati Kusuma Dewi, I Wayan Lasmawan, I Gusti Putu Suharta Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION AND SOCIAL INTERACTION IN RELIGIOUS MINORITY COMMUNITIES TO SUPPORT RELIGIOUS <p>The application of religious values can support the creation of harmony in social interactions in<br />society. Religious diversity can be a beautiful pluralistic description, but it can also hurt the social<br />interaction of religious people if each religious group tends to prioritize its egocentricity. This<br />study aims to analyze religious orientation and social interaction in minority religious communities<br />to maintain religious identity. This study uses a descriptive qualitative method with a literature<br />study approach. The results of the study found that religious orientation in minority religious<br />communities in Indonesia tends to be close to religiosity. There is a dialectical tension between<br />humans (as individuals) who intersect with the overall life in society and the construction of belief<br />(faith). For minority groups, religion is always used as a guide or way of life. The noble values of<br />religion with high tolerance become a benchmark in the process of interaction with a pluralistic<br />society. Efforts to maintain religious identity in minority religious groups are carried out through<br />cultural and religious syncretism which is the social environment and reference group.</p> Sukarti, I Made Wiradiana, I Nyoman Alit Putrawan Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 WIWA PAWINTENAN CEREMONY IN THE SYSTEM AGURON-GURON IN GRIYA AGUNG BANGKASA BONGKASA VILLAGE, ABIANSEMAL DISTRICT, BADUNG REGENCY <p><em>Pawintenan Wiwa can be said to be at odds with the Balinese tradition of Pawintenan, which is determined according to four methods (heredity, election, nyanjan, and lekesan), but still upholds Balinese traditions by using various ceremonial facilities and rerajahan script. To obtain data, a qualitative approach was used which was presented in qualitative descriptive form.</em></p> <p><em>The research results briefly show that: 1) The Pawintenan Wiwa ceremony aims to achieve religious goals, increase spiritual achievements, carry out boarding chess, serve the people, and referential functions. 2) The aguron-guron mechanism includes the recruitment of mewinten candidates, the learning system, the relationship between teachers and students; teachings or curriculum, student code of ethics, and sanctions. The Wiwa Pawintenan system includes processions, rituals, authority. 3) The implications of the Pawintenan Wiwa ceremony are presented in an analysis of theological implications, social implications, economic implications, symbolic capital.</em></p> Putu Eddy Purnomo Arta, I Nengah Duija, Ida Bagus Gede Candrawan Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 THE METAETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF GOD'S ONTOLOGICAL STATUS IN TANTRIC TEACHINGS: A PHILOSOPHICAL STUDY OF CALON ARANG MANUSCRIPTS <p><em>This study aims to investigate the ontological status of God in Calon Arang Manuscripts and interpret it metaethically. Calon Arang, as an original Tantric literary work from the Nusantara's ancestors, is an interesting subject to examine in terms of its ontological view of God and the ethical implications that arise from it. Tantrism essentially conceptualizes God dualistically, depicting God in conflicting forms or elements, which are considered the cosmic basis of the world. This study highlights such dualistic tendencies and identifies potentially significant metaethical implications. An in-depth analysis is conducted utilizing a metaethical approach, specifically the school of natural determinism. This school believes that the moral laws that apply in human reality are in accordance with natural laws, so humans cannot determine objective morality with certainty. The ethical implications of God's ontological status in Tantric teachings are understood as a result of this natural determinism. This research places God's ontological status as the material object and uses natural determinism as the formal framework. Research methods include description, holistics, deduction-induction, and heuristics. With this approach, this research seeks to detail and unravel the complexity of the ontological view of God in the Calon Arang Manuscripts, while exploring the ethical implications that can bring a deeper understanding of this Tantric text.</em></p> Galuh Nur Fattah, Puja Alviana Dewantri, Venessya Tangrestu, Valentin Gagah Laras Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 BATU PULAKI AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE LIVES OF BALINESE PEOPLE <p><em>Batu Pulaki is a stone that is a manifestation of Bali's natural wealth as well as a heritage in the cultural life of the people of Bali. Knowledge of the types, contents, functions and their relationship with the people in Bali. This study aims to describe in more detail the Batu Pulaki its implications for the lives of Balinese people context of the people of Bayupoh Village. To explain the problem above the author uses a type of qualitative research. In this case, the authors were directly involved in data collection by means of observation, documentation, and interviews with informants in the Pulaki area of Bali. In addition, this research uses types of library data such as books, theses, journals, internet media, and so on that supports research. To answer the problem, researchers used Structural Functional Theory. From the research conducted, the findings were obtained, namely the existence of Pulaki stones in a sacred area in which there is the Agung Pulaki temple and several Pasanakan temples around the Pulaki temple. This shows that the Pulaki region with several temples there as relics of Hindu civilization is a center of social and spiritual activity. Pulaki as a sacred area and Pulaki stone as a symbol of community religious ritual facilities historically and theologically provide an aid in understanding religion to the community. The people of Banyupoh Village use Pulaki stones for pedagingan and panca datu, apart from that the existence of Batu Pulaki is also used as a shrine, as a medium of worship by the Hindu community in Banyupoh Village. In its innovation and development, Pulaki stone has been transformed into several art products such as accessories, water fountains and various types of sculptural art.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> Ida Bagus Putu Eka Suadnyana, I Nyoman Miarta Putra Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 ETHNOECOLOGY IN BUYAN LAKE CONSERVATION <p><em>Ethnoecology is the most recent approach to reveal the complexity of the relationship between belief systems (cosmos), knowledge/cognitive systems (corpus) and praxis (sosio-cultural practices) of local communities which can also be understood as local wisdom. The social phenomena and eco-cultural practices of the people in the Buyan Lake area also show this, so they are appropriately explained on the basis of ethnoecological theory. This qualitative study with descriptive interpretative was carried out for six months (May to October 2023) at the Buyan Lake Area locus. The results of the study show that the people in the Buyan Lake Area really respect the gods who are the rulers of nature who protect the environment of the Buyan Lake Area through the cosmos system, both regarding the mystical belief system revealed in the mythology of the forbidden wood, the gombang-rakrik dragons, the duwe animal, the yellow and the iron soan (springs and channels). Likewise, those who are glorified in the aspect of ruling deities in the Hindu pantheon such as Dewi Danu (lakes gods), Dewi Gangga (river gods), Dewi Gayatri (springs gods), Dewa Vishnu (water gods) and Dewa Sangkara (forest gods). The corpus system concerns their knowledge of the capabilities/availability and utilization of various water resources of Lake Buyan. These two ethnoecological systems form perceptions and underlie practical actions in the form of behavioural adaptations for the conservation of the Buyan Lake Area. The sustainable availability of plant resources around Lake Buyan and its fisheries is also part of its use for periodic rituals (ceremonial means).</em></p> Ni Ketut Ayu Juliasih, Ni Luh Gede Sudaryati, I Putu Sudiartawan, I Made Dwi Purnama Artha, I Gede Panduyasa, I Putu Gede Suyoga Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 HINDU THEO-LINGUISTICS: SANSKRIT AS THE LANGUAGE OF HINDU THEOLOGY IN LONTAR BHUWANA SANGKSEPA <p><em>Sanskrit has its prestige for the narrators, thus encouraging the narrators to use Sanskrit terminology and Sanskrit vocabulary in the process of composing Kawi literature. One of the types of literature referred to and contains philosophical, religious, and life values is the Tutur text. Bhuwana Sangksepa is a speech text that uses two languages, namely Sanskrit and Old Javanese, in the content of the text. This paper uses the theory of Theo-linguistics which is an interdisciplinary theory, that etymologically comes from the words theology and linguistics. In addition, to support data acquisition in data collection, it is also combined with interview techniques. Interview techniques are often referred to as interviews. The method of analyzing language research data is the agih method (distributional method) and the translational pairing method. The analyzed data will then be presented using formal and informal methods. Lontar Bhuana Sangkṣepa is one of the important lontar that contains the teachings of Hinduism (Siwatattwa). The text of Lontar Bhuana Sangkṣepa contains a dialog between Bhaṭāra Śiwa and Bhaṭāri Uma accompanied by Bhaṭāra Kumara. Lontar Bhuana Sangkṣepa consists of 128 śloka of Sanskrit with Old Javanese. Lontar Bhuwana Sangkṣepa can be understood as one of the oldest lontars, but after lontar Bhuwana Kośa and Jñana Siddhanta. The texts included in this category are most likely the oldest because as a benchmark for the use of Sanskrit śloka contained in the text, they reflect the situation at a time when Sanskrit texts were still circulating in the archipelago and the language was still actively used and well understood by scholars. The implementation of Sanskrit in śloka through Old Javanese/Kawi language commentary that contains Hindu theological teachings, namely: Bhaṭāra Śiwa, Iṣṭa Dewatā, Sṛṣti Bhuwana Agung, Śūnya, Swara-Wyañjana, Smarana, Nirbāṇa/Nirvāṇa, and Pralaya.</em></p> Putu Eka Sura Adnyana, I Nyoman Suarka, Relin D.E, Ni Nyoman Suryani Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 RELIGIOUS INTERCONNECTIVITY IN AN EFFORT TO REALIZE GLOBAL PEACE: A PHILOSOPHICAL REVIEW <p><em>Reli</em><em>g</em><em>i</em><em>on on the one hand is a way to find true happiness on the basis of love, peace, guarantor of safety, moral guidance for all mankind. However, it is not uncommon that in the name of religion it also causes human suffering, triggers conflicts, wars, and various other sufferings that are born from human beings in the name of religion. Therefore, this is certainly counter-productive to the principles of religion which contain noble teachings by prioritizing humanity, peace, love and so on. Therefore, inter-religious dialog must be prioritized, in order to create harmony and peace among human beings. This research seeks to find the common ground of religions through qualitative methods and phenomenological approaches. The results of this study show that an inclusive attitude in religion can be realized through the Trilogy of Harmony, namely 1) Interfaith Harmony, 2) Internal Harmony of Religious Believers, and 3) Harmony between Government and Religious People. Furthermore, religion as a social construction process must be able to act as a moral guide for every human being. In principle, religion is expected to be able to guide global ethics, because there is no world peace without interfaith peace, and there is no interfaith peace without interfaith dialog. Also, interfaith dialog starts from 1) parliamentary dialog, 2) institutional dialog, 3) theological dialog, 4) dialog in community life, and 5) spiritual dialog.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> Gede Agus Siswadi Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 HINDU EDUCATION IN INDONESIA: CRITIQUE AND REFLECTIVITY <p><em>Education is the human medium to know and understand knowledge acquired multidimensionally, both empirical and metaphysical dimensions. Education has the usefulness of forming a man who is speaking, intelligent, and with a character of dignity. As times change, education is faced with cases such as degradation of values that affect the low quality of education. In generating valid and reliable data, this writing is made qualitatively. In producing logical data, it performs some forms of data processing such as data reduction, data display, data verification, and data interpretation. In its presentation, the writing of data on this paper is analyzed measurably and systematically. The data in this paper is taken from various phenomena about the dynamics of education in Indonesia where the specifications are education based on desire that is obtained from various literature books as well as various Internet sources.The existence of Hindu-based education in Indonesia has fundamental differences from other countries in terms of purpose. Each country has its own idealism in pursuing its education to have a clear output. Unlike education in Indonesia specifically related to desire, it is still grey because national education goals are still inclusive and less focused. This situation creates chaos in the Indonesian education system that tends to be still lower than the neighbouring countries. The curriculum is constantly changing with the change of leadership, the student's attributes tend to disappear due to the selfishness and cults of parents, the forced work of teachers and the extra work outside of class, and the low appreciation of the administrators. In order to create a good educational climate, the role of the educational force, the teachers of the discourse, as well as my other teachers should be more optimized in building a more ideal educational paradigm in terms of both character formation, satisfaction of the pupils, efficiency of work, and proper appreciation.</em></p> Ni Nyoman Perni, I Made Gede Nesa Saputra, Kadek Agus Wardana Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYZING THE DISTURBANCE IN ESTABLISHING THE TRANSCENDENTAL COMMUNICATION: IN THE LIGHT OF YOGA DARŚANA <p><em>Transcendental communication is intrapersonal communication that occurs between humans and God. In general, this communication is conducted in various forms, i.e., puja-mantra or prayer, meditation, and other religious and spiritual practices. However, often, the fundamental connectedness that is a fundamental requirement in transcendental communication fails to be actualized. From the perspective of yoga darśana, the failure of true transcendental communication to be actualized is often caused by disturbances in the form of mind modifications (vṛtti) that cause one's consciousness (citta) to spread everywhere and become attached to sense objects. These disturbances must be removed; hence the self could be in a suitable state to establish true connectedness with Īśvara. The discipline of yoga in the form of aṣṭāṅgayoga or ṣaḍaṅgayoga, carrying it out with the spirit of abhyāsa and vairāgyā, is a discipline that can support oneself in eliminating various disturbances. Therefore, one can build one's decent state to establish a perfect connectedness with Īśvara. When the “state” of oneself is free from all forms of disturbance, then true transcendental communication can be actualized. This research uses qualitative methods and the data collected through literature review.</em></p> I Nengah Lestawi, Endy Gupta, Ida Bagus Ketut Mantra Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 BALINESE ACTIONS AND SOLIDARITY REGARDING OGOH-OGOH IN BANJAR UNTAL-UNTAL: A SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION PERSPECTIVE <p><em>Ogoh-ogoh is a typical Balinese activity that can be found once a year. Ogoh-ogoh is characterized as a sculptural artwork resembling a creepy creature</em><em>’s image as it symbolizes </em><em>bhuta </em><em>kala as an evil entity. Balinese people celebrate the ogoh-ogoh parade, burn them to avoid negative influences and continue life with silence and positivity in the Saka New Year (Nyepi). Ogoh-ogoh is also a tradition that attracts attention because it is displayed with the splendor and beauty of stunning artwork. Of course, it reflects the behavior of Balinese people, whom residents of Banjar Untal-Untal also celebrate. The purpose of this research was to analyze the actions and solidarity of Balinese people regarding ogoh-ogoh in Banjar Untal-Untal from the perspective of the sociology of religion. This research method was qualitative with a case study design. The researcher collected data through interviews and observation. This research showed that the preparation, making, and implementation of ogoh-ogoh exists because of the involvement of people who act in solidarity. Max Weber</em><em>’s theory of social action and Emile Durkheim</em><em>’s theory of social solidarity had relevance to the ogoh-ogoh parade. In social action and solidarity, religious adherents, specifically Christians and Hindus, synergized and supported each other.</em></p> Otniel Aurelius Nole Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 RELIGIOUS PLURALITY AT PUJA MANDALA NUSA DUA BALI BUALU TRADITIONAL VILLAGE, BENOA URBAN VILLAGE, SOUTH KUTA DISTRICT <p><em>This research examines the religious plurality that occurs at Puja Mandala Nusa Dua Bali with a problem formulation; (1) Why does the practice of religious plurality emerge in Puja Mandala Nusa Dua Bali, (2) What is the process of religious plurality in Puja Mandala Nusa Dua Bali, (3) What are the implications of religious plurality in Puja Mandala Nusa Dua Bali.</em></p> <p><em>The theories used are Weber's social action theory, Bourdieu's social practice theory, Blau's exchange theory, and Parson's structural functionalism theory. This type of qualitative research uses a phenomenological approach. The research results show that the emergence of religious plurality in Puja Mandala is due to; (1) Historical Factors of Religious Harmony in Bali, (2) Factors of creative actors, (3) Motive and Goal Factor, (4) Imaginary Idea of Harmony Factor. The practice of religious plurality that occurs at Puja Mandala includes; (1) there is online or interpersonal social interaction, 2) there is PAUB/ Inter-Religious Association, (3) there is intrinsic and extrinsic social exchange (4) there are values used in individual and group activities. The implications of religious plurality in Puja Mandala Nusa Dua Bali are in the form of; (1) adaptation, (2) integration, (3) achieving goals, (4) maintaining unity motivation. The findings in this research are the existence of superstructure, infrastructure and structures, which because the realization of religious plurality at Puja Mandala</em></p> I Gede Pasek Mancapara, I Nengah Duija, Ni Ketut Srie Kusuma Wardhani Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 YOGA AND CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS <p><em>The journal focused on investigating the transformative role of yoga within diverse cultural contexts. In an era characterized by unprecedented multiculturalism and global interaction, yoga emerges as a powerful cultural bridge, enhancing cross-cultural understanding and fostering inclusion. This journal invites rigorous academic exploration of yoga's multifaceted influence. It welcomes research spanning historical roots, cultural adaptations, and psychological dynamics of yoga practice within multicultural societies. Interdisciplinary dialogue is encouraged, with a focus on psychology, communication, anthropology, sociology, and cultural studies, providing a comprehensive view of yoga's cross-cultural impact. Ethical considerations related to the practice and propagation of yoga are explored, alongside practical applications in promoting unity, well-being, and psychological resilience within diverse communities. The journal also engages with future directions in yoga research and application. Committed to academic rigor, "Yoga as a Cultural Bridge" aims to be a scholarly repository for in-depth inquiry into yoga's pivotal role in bridging cultural divides and fostering inclusive, harmonious societies. It promotes appreciation for cultural diversity and the shared human experience while advancing understanding of yoga as a cultural bridge.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> Ni Luh Sinar Ayu Ratnadewi, I Nyoman Sueca Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 THE IMPACT OF TOOTH-CUTTING CEREMONY ON HIV SUFFERERS IN KLUNGKUNG REGENCY <p><em>The tooth-cutting ceremony is one of the manusa yadnya ceremonies that must be lived in the life of Hindus to control the six enemies in humans ( sad ripu). This study wanted to know the impact of the tooth- cutting ceremony for the Balinese Hindu community in Klungkung Regency on HIV sufferers. The purpose of this study is to know. (1) The truth of the tooth-filing teaching in Hindu theology, 2) How the impact of the tooth- cutting ceremony in Klungkung Regency on HIV sufferers, in this study is the relationship between culture and theoretical input in the concept of carrying out tooth- cutting ceremonies in Klungkung Regency for HIV sufferers. This research is by qualitative method and data obtained by making observations including reading literature literature. Data is obtained through several stages: (1) observation of the object of research, so that documents in the form of photos / videos about the implementation of the tooth- cutting ceremony are obtained. (2) interviews were conducted with HIV sufferers and families who performed the tooth- cutting ceremony. Prejudice and public treatment of HIV sufferers is very positive where Hindu culture builds the self-confidence of HIV sufferers kikir.</em></p> Wayan Jaya Putra, I Nyoman Adiputra, I Made Sugata Copyright (c) 2024 Vidyottama Sanatana: International Journal of Hindu Science and Religious Studies Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200